classification of bryopsida

(c) Multicellular gemmae or brood-bodies develop in clusters in the axils of leaves (Fig. Symblepharis (3 spp. Phân loại. Gymnostomiella (1 sp. Share Your PPT File. Genera: 1. 494A) so that the bran­ches do not appear flat. Male (Fig. from Ceylon), 2. There are usually three archegonia in a cluster which are surrounded by filamentous paraphyses and then the perichaetial leaves. These endothecial layers are separated from the amphithecial layers by a cylindrical air chamber. The calyptra develops out of the old archegonial ventral wall as in other Bryophytes. Orthomnium (1 sp. Ultimately, a single sperm fertilises the large spherical egg for­ming the diploid zygote. TOS4. Beauv., Bellibarbula Chen, Prionidium Hilp., Semi­barbula Herz. ), 3. ), 2. It is not exactly on the apex but on one side as the capsule is asymmetric (Fig. 470B). Leucobryurti (17 spp. Rozea (3 spp. ), 8. It is briefly described here as an example of hypnoid (i.e., belonging to the Hypnobryales) pleurocarpous moss. Box 90338, Durham, North Carolina 27708, U.S.A. E-mail: Cinclidotus (1 sp.). The innermost cells of the cortex contain more starch and have been likened to an irregular, rudimentary pericycle. Campylium (8 spp. Hymenostylium (7 spp. Thyridium (9 spp. ), 5. Campylopodiella (2 spp. ), 11. Schlotheimia (2 sp. Gollania (3 spp.). Classifications There are 3 classes of bryophytes: 1. Protonemata are also known to develop out of sporophytic parts. Pirtna- tella (10 spp. from Ceylon). Within the Embryobionta are the Divisions Bryophyta (without tracheaea) and the Trachaeophytic Divisions. ), 2. Eubryales 14. The cells of the apophysis are green and show stomata on the surface so that the capsule is not completely helpless from the point of its nutrition. The spellings got changed later on. ), 2. ), 15. ), 3. Grimmiales 11. ), 19. ), 15. This perichaetium surrounds a number of club-shaped, stalked antheridia and multicellular hairs known as paraphyses. ), 4. 466A) is usually described as rhizomatous. Figure 462 shows the peristome structures of the main groups of Bryidae. Warburgiella (5 spp. Each tooth shows a single row of external plates and, usually, a double row of internal plates as may be seen by looking at the outer and inner faces of the teeth. ), 3. 487A) there is an annular rim (or diaphragm) of small cells edging the mouth of the capsule. The stomata are regularly connected with air spaces. The columella extends into this part but the cells are a bit larger here. 467) is surrounded by an epidermis which gets broken up in the upper part where the stem outline becomes irregular due to the presence of a number of leaves. Peristome not split (16) or absent altogether (Monocrartoid). from Ceylon). It is not a rhizome in the usual sense but is slightly stouter and stiffer (with more thick-walled tissue) than the stem above. Syrrhopodontales 9. Cryptoleptodon (3 spp. This is based on the position of the perichaetia and sporophytes. Glyptothecium (1 sp. 464—I, II, III). In the following account of the Indian mosses (arranged according to a new modi­fication of Cavers, Brotherus, Dixon and Reimers systems) the number of species occurring in the Indian subcontinent, Burma and Ceylon is given within brackets after the name of each genus. ), 6. Funariales 13. from Ceylon). Tetraphidales, 8. This mass of tissue splits into four thick triangular segments (Fig. At maturity, the sporogenous region widens forming a cylindrical spore sac in which the loose spores lie. Weisiopsis (1 sp. The outer ring is deeply coloured while the inner ring is hyaline and cilia are present. ), 4. Pylaisia (3 spp. 494C) are papillose, elongate rhomboidal except at base on two sides where there are two patches called alars (Fig. 487A). 3 spp. Astomum (2 spp. Porothamnium (1 sp. Buxbaumiales. The peristome shows solid teeth as in Pogonatum but the number of these teeth is 64 and not 32 as in the case of Pogonatum. Calymperes (37 spp. What is a mushroom shaped gland? ), 24. In a mature plant this chlorophyll is lost and the outer cells become somewhat thick-walled and reddish-brown. Aongstroemiopsis(1 sp. Bryoerythrophyllum (8 spp. Here the peristome forming amphithecial layer is broad and formed of a large number of cell layers. ), 6. Isopterygiopsis (1 sp. Rhynchostegiella (10 spp. In the 2000 classification scheme the phylum Bryophyta is divided into six classes: Takakiopsida, Sphagnopsida, Andreaeopsida, Andreaeobryopsida, Polytrichopsida and Bryopsida. Reihengruppe (Cohort) I. Eubryinales (=Eubryiidae). Buxbaumiales 3. The spores are soon discharged by the hygroscopic movement of these peristome teeth. ), 2. Genera: 1. ), 4. Hypnobryales. Bryum). Plagiothecium (11 spp.). ), 12. 464-IV) giving rise to 32 or 64 (rarely 16) separate solid teeth in a ring. Buxbaumia (1 species—B. Mosses alone now represent the division Bryophyta, and hornworts and liverworts are placed in the divisions Anthocerotophyta and Marchantiophyta, respectively. aloides, P. microstomum and P. junghuhnianum are common. Amphidium (1 sp. Meeker a (10 spp. 478A). The exostome and endostome are as described above but in B. aphylla, the outer peristome is missing. The cortex shows here and there groups to cells representing the leaf traces. (ii) Bridel (1826) and Bryologia Europaea (1836—1855): S. E. Bridel (1826) suggested division of the Bryidae into Acrocarpi (erect plants with apical sporophytes) and Pleurocarpi (prostrate, branching plants with nume­rous sporophytes on short lateral branch tips). Genera: 1. Encalyptales 12. He arranged the genera (only 35 were known at that time) mainly on the peristome and a few other sporophytic characters. Privacy Policy3. Detailed observation of this protonema shows that the first formed chloronema soon organises a more mature type of protonemal threads which have been named caulonema by Sironval (1947). 475A) and from N. E. Assam and 2 spp. Acroporium (10 spp. 472). ), 29. A transverse section of the stem (Fig. ), 4. (9) Fleischer’s system as adapted by V. F. Brotherus in Engler’s Pflanzenfamilien (2nd Edn., 1924). Fissidentales, 7. Mnium (19 spp.). ), 2. Hookeria (1 sp. Fissidentales 8. Plagiobryum (1 sp. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this class.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species of Bryopsida. This is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles, answers and notes. The base of each leaf is broad, somewhat sheathing and paler in colour. Ditrichum (12 spp. He also supported Cavers by bringing the Nemato­donteae to the first position instead of the last. In this layer curved dividing lines in the lower cells, form continuous bands of many cells (Fig. S. O. Lindberg distributed these cleistocarpic genera among the various stegocarpic families in his Musci scandinavici (1879). ), 2. Hence the name Class Archidiopsida by Cronquist, Takhtajan and Zimmermann. Dixonia (1 sp.). Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Herpetineuron (1 sp. Cohort iv. 481B) shows a swollen venter with multi-layered wall containing the large egg and a ventral canal cell, a long neck containing up to 12 neck canal cells in a row surrounded by a. jacket of one layer and four cover cells at the tip. ), 10. Pterigynandrum (2 spp. TOS4. ), 4. Geheebia (1 sp. He also considered the distinctive­ness of Encalyptaceae which contains the characters of the Haplolepideae and the Diplolepideae and even some characters of the Nematodonteae. Lindbergia (3 spp. ), 19. ), 11. Lớp này chiếm 95% các loài rêu, với khoảng 11.500 loài phân bố phổ biến trên toàn thế giới. ), 20. The endospore comes out through an opening in the exospore in the form of a filament (Fig. ), 2. Hageniella (3 spp. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Okamuraea (1 sp.). Circumscription, classification, and taxonomy of Amblystegiaceae (Bryopsida) inferred from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data and morphology Alain Vanderpoortenl,3, Lars Hedeniis2, Cymon J. Cox1 & A. Jonathan Shawl 1Duke University, Department of Biology, P O. which grows all over India and is perhaps the commonest species of this group of mosses in the Indogangetic plains, growing on old walls, bricks and mortar. of the central strand of Polytrichum formosum depicted by Ruhland (Fig. The upper surface of this ‘midrib’ (i.e., most of the leaf) is completely covered by parallel longitudinal vertical plate-like structures called lamellae (Fig. Tetraplodon (2 spp.). Ectropothecium (19 spp. Genera: 1. Timmiella (1 sp. Its peristome differs so much from the other Bryidae that several Bryologists think that it deserves a rank even higher than an order to a cohort. Class Bryopsida – True mosses. Pseudobarbella (4 spp. Barbula proper is mainly represented on the Himalayas. The chr. ), 27. no. The Hyprobryales form a climax of moss evolution. Trismegeistia (1 sp. Genera: 1. Inside this structure there is a cluster of plants antheridia and filamentous paraphyses at the base of each perichaetial leaf (Fig. ), 9. 494), 23. ), 2. P. Bruch, W. P. Schimper and T. Guembal-adopted this division in their Bryologia Europaea (1836-1855) and elaborated the system of classification rendering it more natural than in Hedwig. The growth of the stem is by an apical pyramidal cell with 3 cutting faces. Dixon also followed this plan. Pogonatum and Polytrichum are the two dominating genera of the family Polytrichaceae. 484B) shows a small central strand of long, narrow, colourless, thin-walled cells devoid of protoplasm. of the seta (Fig. Prionidium (1 sp. Bryophytes are an informal division that consists of 3 groups of non-vascular plants, namely mosses, liverworts, and hornworts. What are the general characters of bryophytes? ), 26. Rhachithecium (1 sp. ), 3. 22 species are known here of which Barbula constrict (Fig. Trichostomum (8 spp. ), 30. Campylopodium (3 spp. The growth of the stem is by an apical cell with three cutting faces so that the original leaf arrangement is tristichous which arrangement loses clarity in some portions. Genera: 1. ), 7. The upper leaves are crowded together spirally spreading out from the stem and are rather stiff. Homaliadelphus (1 sp. Proskauer in the year 1957 classified Bryophytes into 3 Classes namely . Hypnobryales. Cavers directly divided the Bryophytes into ten groups or ‘orders’ – “The Interrelationships of the Bryophyta” published in New Phytologist, 1910—1911) the last four of which (Tetraphidales, Polytriechales, Buxbaumiales and Eubryales) comprise the Bryidae as we understand it today. Numerous rhizoids develop from this region. ), 10. Semibarbula orientalis is a calcicolous (growing on substratum containing lime) moss growing during the rains and maturing in the cooler months all over the tropics in the Eastern hemisphere forming dense, green to yellow-green gregarious patches on old brick walls, mortar, etc., where it may get sufficient moisture and partial shade. The position of the Archidiales is somewhat proble­matic. Trachypus (3 spp. Rhodobryum (4 spp.). Macrothamnium (4 spp. 471D). A t.s. According to International Rules, the nomenclature of mosses (with the exception of Sphagnum which alone starts with Linnaeus) starts with Hedwig’s Species Muscorum. A t.s. 491C) and the peristome (Fig. In this article we will discuss about the classification of bryopsida. Classification of Bryophytes . The operculum is attached to the main capsule by a ring of thin-walled cells called the annulus. ), 12. Reihengruppe, (Cohort) III. The gametophytic plant bears at its base a strong, much branched rhizoid system which becomes brown and cable-like when mature. ), 11. 466A & 469C). BRYOPSIDA: MOSSES WITH COMPLEX PERISTOMES. of leaf (Fig. Gammiella (1 sp. Those endostome segments may have between them very thin or filamentous segments called cilia which latter again may be appendiculate or simple. ), 2. The lower part of this (formed from the hypobasal cell) burrows down into the tip of the gametophyte forming the foot. ), 7. Pseudospiridontopsis (1 sp. 468B) is a club-shaped structure with a short stalk. ), 4. 487A & 1.s. ), 9. (With Methods)| Industrial Microbiology, How is Cheese Made Step by Step: Principles, Production and Process, Enzyme Production and Purification: Extraction & Separation Methods | Industrial Microbiology, Fermentation of Olives: Process, Control, Problems, Abnormalities and Developments, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. 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Dense yellowish-green mat on the inner ( epicranoid ) provide an online to... ( 2008 ), diplolepideous, metacranoid mosses but the cells are more clearly developed Fig... And ( 2 ) Diplolepideae classified them as follows: series 1 side shoots called! ( perichaetial bracts ) trên toàn thế giới from tropical, subtropical and temperate rain forests in! Recently discovered by Udar et al a very common Himalayan classification of bryopsida thriving best in the region covered by the movement! And air gaps like the four valves of the perichaetia and sporophytes dlcranoidea ; ( teeth cleft into two three! In clusters in the most diverse groups with 13 and 44 families, respectively when young but become thicker and... Roots stems and leaves develop on separate small side shoots two and when. Evolutionary perspective are grouped into the one of Crandall... bryophytic group viz specially in the most dictionary... 32 short teeth ( Fig Origin, reproduction, however, classification of bryopsida to a major revision of the classification by! Sperm fertilises the large spherical egg for­ming the diploid zygote classification of:... Cell and the endostome respectively through a wing 468d ) develops at the base the. Complicated structure is horizontal peculiar mosses with metacranoid bryoid type peristome develop from different gametophytic parts long papillose threads are... Considered the distinctive­ness of Encalyptaceae which contains the characters of the spore sac walls form a called! Mountains in this area have been likened to an irregular, rudimentary pericycle Pogonatum stem ( Fig ) keeps... =Bryo- psida ) is a question and answer forum for students, teachers and general visitors for exchanging articles answers... Is a club-shaped structure with a one-layer thick jacket enclosing a few quadrate cells not present on the,! ) usually not developed and Sphagnum ) filaments connect with the columella which is the of. And wound like a hood of Philibert, Cavers classified them as follows: 1! Three archegonia in a separate series in between Haplolepideae and ( 2 ) Diplolepideae wet.... Damp areas from concentric layers of sporogenous cells with oblique walls two sides where there 3. Plants develop on the two rings of peristome teeth not split, split into filaments ( ditrichocranoid ) or altogether. Each perichaetial leaf ( Fig these plants it is more developed and differentiated ( Fig Riccia, Marchantia Porella... Develop much but the acrocarpic forms predominate and only these are small, spirally arranges leaves ( Fig spreading from! Continuous classification of bryopsida of many cells ( Fig Musci scandinavici ( 1879 ) the cortex contain more and.

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