The war was characterized by a lack of respect for civilian life and prisoners of war on both sides of the conflict. Massacre of the Rhineland Jews (1096). His path of triumph was carpeted with corpses. , Greek villages in Macedonia were destroyed, and many of the inhabitants were put to death. Steven Bowman claims that despite the fact that many Jews were killed, they were not targeted specifically: "Such a tragedy seems to be more a side-effect of the butchering of the Turks of Tripolis, the last Ottoman stronghold in the South where the Jews had taken refuge from the fighting, than a specific action against Jews per se. The genocidal orgy in the Peloponnese ended only when there were no more Turks to kill.  Settled Turkish, Albanian, Greeks, and smaller Jewish communities in the Peloponnese were destroyed, and settled Greek communities in the Aegean, Crete, Central and Southern Greece were wiped out.. Their technique was "to engineer some atrocity against the local Turkish population", so that these different Greek communities would have to ally themselves with the revolutionaries fearing a retaliation from the Ottomans. His body was mutilated and thrown into the sea, where it was rescued by Greek sailors. The Turks and Egyptians ravaged several Greek islands during the Greek Revolution, including those of Samothrace (1821), Chios (1822), Kos, Rhodes, Kasos and Psara (1824). , Although the total estimates of the casualties vary, the Turkish, Muslim Albanian and Jewish population of the Peloponnese had ceased to exist as a settled community. David Brewer, "The Greek War of Independence." In 1822, the Turks… GCT B June 6, 2020. In 1821-7, during the Greek revolution, thousands of Greeks were put to death who had no other crime than being of the same religion and nationality. Besides the atrocities committed against the local Muslims in the island, two hybrid brigs captured a Turkish ship laden with a valuable cargo, and carrying a number of passengers. Greek Disinformation. Nevertheless, fighting begins to break out all over with massacres committed by both the Greeks and the Turks. Konstantinos Kanaris was a Greek Admiral, patriot, and politician who lived during the period 1790-1877. During the great massacre of Heraklion on 24 June 1821, remembered in the area as "the great ravage" ("ο μεγάλος αρπεντές", "o megalos arpentes"), the Turks also killed the metropolite of Crete, Gerasimos Pardalis, and five more bishops: Neofitos of Knossos, Joachim of Herronissos, Ierotheos of Lambis, Zacharias of Sitia and Kallinikos, the titular bishop of Diopolis. W. Alison Phillips, The War of Greek Independence, 1821 to 1833, Harris J. Booras. On October 15, a massive Turkish Cypriot mob seized and hanged an Archbishop, five Bishops, thirty six ecclesiastics, and hanged most of the Greek Cypriots in Larnaca and the other towns.  On Easter Sunday, 9 April 1821, Gregory V was hanged in the central outside portal of the Ecumenical Patriarchate by the Ottomans. The revolt began under the leadership of Alexandros Ypsilantis. , William St. Clair, That Greece Might Still Be Free - The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, Oxford University Press London 1972 p.2 ISBN 0-19-215194-0, William St. Clair, That Greece Might Still Be Free - The Philhellenes in the War of Independence, p.12, William St. Clair, That Greece Might Still Be Free - The Philhellenes in the War of Independence.  Some estimates of the Turkish and Muslim Albanian civilian deaths by the rebels range from 15,000 out of 40,000 Muslim residents to 30,000 only in Tripolitsa. This happened during the GreekWar of Independence. The Metropolitan bishop was brought in chains, together with other leading notables, and they were tortured and executed in the square of the flour market. In March 1822 several hundred armed Samians landed in Chios, destroyed a few mosques, and proclaimed the Revolution. British historian W. Alison Phillips, who wrote the history of the Greek revolution, noted in 1897: Everywhere, as though at a preconcerted signal, the peasantry rose, and massacred all the Turks—men, women and children—on whom they could lay hands. of the constant energetic fight of the Patriarchs, who never relaxed their\rigilance and who carried on their struggle for maintenance of their faith. See Navarino Massacre.  There were also several other Turkish families on board. The Chiote… Atrocities against the Greek population of Constantinople, April 1821. More of … The Chios massacre of 1822 was perhaps the worst atrocity carried out by the Ottomans against Greeks during the War of Independence. Greek War of Independence - Massacres Massacres Almost as soon as the revolution began, there were large scale massacres of civilians by both Greek revolutionaries and Ottoman authorities.vii Greek revolutionaries massacred Turks and Muslims, mainly inhabitants of the Peloponnese and Attica where Greek forces were dominant, identifying them with the Ottoman rule.  Followingly, massacres ensued against the Turkish civilians in the towns of Peloponnese that the Greek revolutionaries had captured.  Mehmet Ali, the Pasha of Egypt, dispatched his naval fleet to Kasos and on May 27, 1824 killed the population. W. Alison Phillips, The War of Greek Independence, 1821 to 1833, p. 61. The Turks attempted to take the town on 16 March 1822, and on 18 and 19 March, without success. It contained, besides the Christian population, some five hundred Mussulman families and about two hundred Jews. Execution of Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople, Most of the Greeks in the Greek quarter of Constantinople were massacred. The French consul M. Méchain reported on 15 September 1821 that the local pasha, Küçük Mehmet, carried out several days of massacres in Cyprus since July 9 and continued on for forty days, despite the Vizier's command to end the plundering since 20 July 1821. Others were killed in the cathedral where they had fled for refuge, and their heads were gathered together as a present for Yusuf Bey.. The Turks … So great was the slaughter that Kolokotronis himself says that, from the gate to the citadel his horse’s hoofs never touched the ground. " However, in the case of Vrachori a massacre of a Jewish population occurred first, and the Jewish population in the Peloponnese regardless was effectively decimated, unlike that of the considerable Jewish populations of the Aegean, Epirus and other areas of Greece in the several following conflicts between Greeks and the Ottomans later in the century. ParÃs, Firmin Didot PÃ©re, 1825, vol. Most of the Greeks in the Greek quarter of Constantinople were massacred.  In May, the Metropolitans Gregorios of Derkon, Dorotheos of Adrianople, Ioannikios of Tyrnavos, Joseph of Thessaloniki, and the Phanariote Georgios Callimachi and Nikolaos Mourousis were decapitated on the Sultan's orders in Constantinople. When Ibrahim Pasha retook Tripoli in June 22, 1825, he massacred the entire Greek population, destroyed the city and tore down its walls.  William St. Clair wrote that: "The orgy of genocide exhausted itself in the Peloponnese only when there were no more Turks to kill. Professor resigns from “Greece 2021” committee after another major controversy. There were numerous massacres during the Greek War of Independence perpetrated by both the Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman forces. May 26, 2020 . Only a few of them were saved by a French merchant, called M. Bonfort. Eugène Delacroix 's Massacre of Chios There were numerous massacres during the Greek War of Independence perpetrated by both the Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman forces. George Finlay, History of the Greek Revolution and the Reign of King Otho. There were numerous massacres during the Greek War of Independence perpetrated by both the Ottoman forces and the Greek revolutionaries. The Turkish attack failed but on 6 April, after receiving fresh reinforcements of some 3,000 men, the Turkish army finally overcame the Greek resistance and entered the city. Turkish, Albanian, Greeks, and Jewish populations identified with the Ottomans inhabiting the Peloponnese suffered massacres particularly where Greek forces were dominant, while massacres of Greeks took place especially in Ionia, Crete, Constantinople, Macedonia and the Aegean islands. The Greek Orthodox Church held its place and it; power through Greece and the Near East mainly because . Nor in the whole wide world. The numbers come from “The Sacrifices of Greece in the Second World War,” a 1946 report prepared for the Greek government by the architect K. A. Doxiadis. Greek Massacres - 1821-1827. The story of WWII Greece starts with food, the weapon of starvation for the occupiers. Abdul Abud laid the town and surrounding area to waste. Atrocities toward the Turkish civilian population inhabiting the Peloponnese had started in Achaia on the 28th of March, just with the beginning of the Greek revolt. Î½Î¹ÎºÎ®Ï ÎÏÏÎ¿ÏÎ¯Î±Ï, http://www.phys.uoa.gr/~nektar/history/historia_abstract, Christopher A. The Ethniki Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (EOKA; / eɪ ˈ oʊ k ə /; Greek: Εθνική Οργάνωσις Κυπρίων Αγωνιστών, lit. Gimme the green light to create the said articles, if articles like the … Among these was a recently deposed Sheik-ul-Islam, or patriarch of the Orthodox Muslims, who was said to be going to Mecca for pilgrimage. The Greek War of Independence is a masterful work—the first comprehensive study in thirty years—of one of the most heroic and bloody struggles for independence any people has ever waged. Within three weeks of the outbreak of the revolt, not a Muslim was left, save those who had succeeded in escaping into the towns.. 6. They disappeared suddenly and finally in the spring of 1821 unmourned and unnoticed by the rest of the world....It was hard to believe then that Greece once contained a large population of Turkish descent, living in small communities all over the country, prosperous farmers, merchants, and officials, whose families had known no other home for hundreds of years...They were killed deliberately, without qualm or scruple, and there was no regrets either then or later.. By September 1822, sixty two Greek Cypriot The Constantinople massacre of 1821 was orchestrated by the authorities of the Ottoman Empire against the Greek community of Constantinople in retaliation for the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830). This chapter examines its diplomatic history with emphasis on the role of Britain (Canning) and Russia. Haïroullah Effendi reported that then and "for days and nights the air was filled with shouts, wails, screams." British historian of the Greek revolt, W. Alison Phillips noted: The Hydriots murdered them all in cold blood, helpless old men, ladies of rank, beautiful slaves, and little children were butchered like cattle.  On the third of April 1821, the Turks of Kalavryta surrendered upon promises of security which were afterwards violated. " St. Clair wrote: The Turks of Greece left few traces. A general massacre ensued the fall of Navarino on August 19, 1821. The Dance of Zalongo refers to the mass suicide of women from Souli and their children during the Souliote War on December 16, 1803. The essence of the Greek-Turkish rivalry: national narrative and identity, Bouboulina Museum, Spetses Greece (Publisher: Greek Island Spetses; Accessed: 2007-04-18), Republican French rule in the Ionian Islands, Imperial French rule in the Ionian Islands, The Reception of Lord Byron at Missolonghi. It was his efforts to prevent the cruel reprisals which, at Constantinople, followed the news of the massacres in Peloponnese, which brought him into disfavor, and caused his exile. This so-called Greek war of independence hitherto was hardly a war at all, but mostly a series of opportunist massacres against defenseless civilians, women and children who were slaughtered because of their ethnicity and religion. The Greek population was massacred. The war was characterized by a lack of respect for civilian life and prisoners of war on both sides of the conflict. Six hundred of them had already gone on board the brigs, when the Mainotes burst into the town and started murdering all those who had not yet reached to the shore or those who had chosen to stay in the town. June 6, 1822: Revenge of the Chios Massacre. He was defeated, but in the meantime other rebels in Greece … , "Holocaust of Samothraki" (1821) by François-Auguste Vinson, Greek medal of 1924 commemorating the holocaust of Psara (1824), Soon after the outbreak of the revolution, Ottoman authorities began massacring Greek islanders, whose fleets were instrumental to the Greek cause. The war was characterized by a lack of respect for civilian life and prisoners of war on both sides of the conflict. One week later, the former Ecumenical Patriarch Cyril VI was hanged in the gate of the Adrianople's cathedral. , Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi (1827, Musée des Beaux-Arts, Bordeaux). As for the inhabitants of Chios, most were apathetic toward the rebellion until the massacre. , There were also massacres towards the Muslim inhabitants of the islands in the Aegean Sea, in the early years of the Greek revolt. 'National Organisation of Cypriot Fighters') was a Greek Cypriot nationalist guerrilla organisation that fought a campaign for the end of British rule in Cyprus, for the island's self-determination and for eventual union with Greece. The attack increased support for the Greek cause in western Europe, with Eugène Delacroix depicting the massacre in his painting Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi.  Thomas Gordon reports executions of Greek civilians in Serres and Thessaloniki, beheadings of merchants and clergy, and seventy burnt villages. It would be unfair to over-look Ali Pasha and the fact that the insurrection of 1821 was actually something of an Albanian affair and that the Chios massacre was a consequence of this. Turkish commander Reşid Mehmed Pasha was joined by Ibrahim Pasha, who crossed the Gulf of Corinth, and during the early part of 1826, Ibrahim had more artillery and supply brought in. 3, pp 252. The prosperous and contented Sciotes were an obvious target for these tactics, especially as their happy condition was much envied by their poorer neighbours in Samos. Up to 30,000 Turks had been killed in Tripolitsa: For three days the miserable inhabitants were given over to lust and cruelty of a mob of savages. On July 1821, the head of the Cypriot Orthodox Church Archbishop Kyprianos, along with 486 prominent Greek Cypriots, amongst them the Metropolitans Chrysanthethos of Paphos, Meletios of Kition and Lavrentios of Kyrenia, were executed by hanging or beheading by the Ottomans in Nicosia. However, in the 18th and 19th centuries, as revolutionary nationalism grew across Europe (due, in part, to the influence of the French Revolution), and the power of the Ottoman Empire declined, Greek nationalism began to assert itself and drew support from Western European "philhellenes". , After the Sultan's vassal in Egypt was sent to intervene with the Egyptian fleet on 1825, Muhammad Ali's son, Ibrahim, landed in Crete and began to massacre the majority Greek community.. , Historian George Finlay claimed that the extermination of the Muslims in the rural districts was the result of a premeditated design and it proceeded more from the suggestions of men of letters, than from the revengeful feelings of the people. After being trapped by Ottoman Albanian troops, near the village of Zalongo in Epirus, modern Greece, then Ottoman Empire, about 60 women decided to turn towards the cliff's edge together with their infants and children rather than surrender. The massacre was used deftly by imperial proponents in London, Paris, and Moscow, and further isolated the Ottomans from European diplomacy.  This was followed by the execution of two Metropolitans and twelve Bishops by the Turkish authorities. It is important to note that the Greek Re… ", In Athens, 1,190 Turks, of whom only 190 were capable of bearing arms, surrendered upon promises of security. After requests for the town's surrender were dismissed by the Greeks, the Turks charged the gate of St George on 31 March.  William St. Clair also argued that: "with the beginning of the revolt, the bishops and priests exhorted their parishioners to exterminate infidel Muslims.  According to historians W.Alison Phillips, George Finlay, William St. Clair and Barbara Jelavich, massacres of Turkish civilians started simultaneously with the outbreak of the revolt, while Harris J. Booras wrote that the massacres followed the brutal hanging of Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople. As the Greek war of independence escalated, editorials were devoted not only to the Eastern Question but the 1827 Treaty of London whose goal was “to … , Another similar massacre took place in the island Hydra, one of the most important Aegean islands. The forces of Ibrahim Pasha were extremely brutal in the Peloponnese, burning the major port of Kalamata to the ground and slaughtering the city's inhabitants; they also ravaged the countryside and were heavily involved in the slave trade. The Greeks defended Naousa with a force of 4,000 under the overall command of Zafeirakis Theodosiou and Anastasios Karatasos. With a few geographical exceptions, anyone who lived in the “wrong” place would be deported from their ancestral homeland across the Aegean to start a new life … In 1822, the Turks massacred 25,000 people in Chios, burning and destroying the island of Chios for 15 days under the command of Turkish Admiral Kara Ali Pasha. This massacre was used by the rest of Europe to isolate the Ottoman empire from European diplomacy. In 1822, Abdul Abud, the Pasha of Thessaloniki, arrived on 14 March at the head of a 16,000 strong force and 12 cannons against Naousa. For more information on the ethnic cleansing and massacres in Greece, please visit here. There were numerous massacres during the Greek War of Independence perpetrated by both the Ottoman forces and the Greek revolutionaries. The intervention of Britain, Russia and France in the Greek War of Independence is regarded as the first armed intervention on humanitarian grounds. Overlook TP 2003 p.66. , In May 1821, the governor Yusuf Bey ordered his men to kill any Greeks in Thessaloniki they found in the streets. The Constanintople massacre of 1821 was orchestrated by the authorities of the Ottoman Empire against the Greek community of Constantinople (modern Istanbul) in retaliation for the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence (1821–1830). The venerable old man, whose crime had been an excess of zeal on behalf of the Greeks, was forced to see his family outraged and murdered before his eyes.... "Hellenic Independence and America's Contribution to the Cause" Tuttle Co. 1934 p.24, George Finlay, History of the Greek Revolution and the Reign of King Otho, p. 152, W. Alison Phillips, The War of Greek Independence, p. 57, W. Alison Phillips, The War of Greek Independence, p.66. In 1822, 52,000 Greeks were massacred on the island of Chios.  Many Jews within Greece and throughout Europe were however supporters of the Greek revolt, using their wealth (as in the case of the Rothschilds) as well as their political and public influence to assist the Greek cause. However, his men were unable to storm the walls, and in 1826, following a one year siege, Turkish-Egyptian forces conquered the city on Palm Sunday, and exterminated almost its entire population. Neither sex nor age was spared. Long - The Series of Events, "Brief Historical Review of the Holy Archdiocese of Crete", https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Massacres_during_the_Greek_Revolution?oldid=4441510. He achieved prominence due to his heroism in the Greek War of Independence. According to historian William St. clair, one of the aims of the Greek revolutionaries was to embroil as many Greek communities as possible in their struggle. The worst Greek atrocity in terms of the numbers of victims involved was the massacre following the Fall of Tripolitsa in 1822. 10,000 first printing. Women and children were tortured before being put to death. Some were hanged from the plane trees around the Rotonda. According to another historian of the Greek revolt, William St. Clair, upwards of twenty thousand Turkish men, women and children were killed by their Greek neighbors in a few weeks of slaughter. Long - The Series of Events, "Brief Historical Review of the Holy Archdiocese of Crete". Greek War of Independence: Morea Expedition, Massacres During the Greek Revolution, Souliotes, Background of the Greek War of Independence, Filik [Source Wikipedia] on Amazon.com.au.  By the end of April, a number of prominent Greeks had been decapitated by Turkish forces in Constantinople, including Constantine Mourousis, Levidis Tsalikis, Dimitrios Paparigopoulos, Antonios Tsouras, and the Phanariotes Petros Tsigris, Dimitrios Skanavis and Manuel Hotzeris, while Georgios Mavrocordatos was hanged. can Philhellenes of the 1821 Greek War of Independence, erected at Missolonghi, ... and oftentimes, wholesale murders and massacres.  The destruction of Naousa marked the end of the Greek revolution in Macedonia in 1822.  The Chios Massacre of 1822 became one of the most notorious occurrences of the war. His body was mutilated and thrown into the sea, where it was rescued by Greek sailors.  In such a case, in March 1821, Greeks from the Samos island had landed in the Island Chios and attacked the Muslim population living in that island. On 24 March the Turks began a bombardment of the city walls that lasted for days. In the Morea shall no Turk be left. , Historian David Brewer writes that in the first year of the revolution, a Turkish army descended on the city of Patras and slaughtered all of the civilians of the settlement, razing the city. Following the state's establishment, it also then attracted many Jewish immigrants from the Ottoman Empire, as one of the first states in the world to grant legal equality to Jews. The Turks in Monemvasia, weakened by the famine opened the gates of the city, and laid down their weapons. At the end of two days, the wretched remnant of the Mussulmans were deliberately collected, to the number of some two thousand souls, of every age and sex, but principally women and children, were led out to a ravine in the neighboring mountains and there butchered like cattle. Bowman, Steven, "History of the Jews in Greece" University of Massachusetts www.umass.edu/judaic/anniversaryvolume/articles/30-F3-Bowman.pdf, Bowman, Steven, "History of the Jews in Greece" University of Massachusetts, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Ecumenical Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople, File:A 1924 Greek medal commemorating the Psara holocaust of 1824.jpg, Bouboulina Museum, Spetses Greece (Publisher: Greek Island Spetses; Accessed: 2007-04-18), Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, Cyril VI, University of Athens, Επίτομο Λεξικό της Ελληνικής Ιστορίας, http://www.phys.uoa.gr/~nektar/history/historia_abstract, Christopher A.  The massacres in Vrachori commenced with the Jews and soon Mussulmans shared the same fate. Shortly after Lord Byron's death in 1824, the Turks arrived to besiege the Greeks once more at Missolonghi. No copyright infringement intended. The Ottoman Empire had ruled almost all of Greece, with the exception of the Ionian Islands since its conquest of the Byzantine Empire over the course of the 14th and 15th centuries. Records of the time are incomplete, and even those that are complete are based on conflicting and unreliable reports. Le Massacre de Scio ("The Chios massacre") a painting (1824) by Eugène Delacroix depicting the massacre of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822.  On 2 April, the outbreak became general over the whole of Peloponnese and on that day many Turks were murdered in different places. Greek War of Independence: Morea Expedition, Massacres During the Greek Revolution, Souliotes, Background of the Greek War of Independence, Filik ... Greek Independence Day : The Beginning of Ethnic Cleansing in the Balkans read more; Greek War of Independence and its Toll on Turks read more; Forced Migration and Mortality in the Ottoman Empire - An Annotated Map read more; Turkey and the Turks: Educational Resource Guide read more; … The Greek War of Independence: The Struggle for Freedom from Ottoman Oppression A classical scholar reconstructs the Greek war for independence from the Ottoman empire, a conflict that captured the imagination of Romantic-era Europe and spurred thousands of non-Greek volunteers to join the struggle. *FREE* shipping on eligible orders.  Those on the ships meanwhile were stripped of their clothes, beaten and left on a desolate rock in the Aegean, instead of being deported to Asia Minor as promised. Sourses exist to base arguments in similar and better ways than a supposed "Navariono massacre". In an infamous incident, many of the women committed suicide by falling down a cliff over the small river Arapitsa. If my fellow turkish users want to call "massacre" every battle or capture of city in Greece by the Greeks in 1821-1831, then, I am aloud to talk about the massacres of: Efessos, Magnesia, Smyrni, Pergamos, Trapezounta, Amissus, etc, etc, etc. The massacre of Samothrace occurred on September 1, 1821, where a Turkish fleet under the Kapudan Pasha Nasuhzade Ali Pasha killed most of the male population, took the women and children to slavery and burned down their homes. War of Greek Independence (1821–32), rebellion of Greeks within the Ottoman Empire, a struggle which resulted in the establishment of an independent kingdom of Greece. The Ottoman Empire was the cause of another famous massacre, this one much larger in scale. On the island of Chios 25,000 Greeks are killed while in the Peloponessos the Greeks kill 15,000 of the 40,000 Turks living there. And many Greeks particularly in Northern Greece had paid the inevitable penalty in 1821. There were numerous massacres during the Greek War of Independence perpetrated by both the Greek revolutionaries and the Ottoman forces. George Finlay, History of the Greek Revolution and the Reign of King Otho, edited by H. F. Tozer, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1877 Reprint London 1971, p. 146 SBN 900834 12 9. Konstantinos Kanaris was a Greek Admiral, patriot, and politician who lived during the period 1790-1877.  A few weeks later, the fleet under Husrev Pasha destroyed the population of Psara. villages and hamlets had entirely disappeared. There is no easy way to judge the true number. He achieved prominence due to his heroism in the Greek War of Independence. Excerpt: The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Greek: Ottoman: Yunan syan ) was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 … F. Pouqueville, F., Histoire de la regeneration de la Grece, comprenant le precis des evenements depuis 1740 jusquen 1824. 82 relations. , Vrachori, modern day Agrinio, was an important town in West-Central Greece. The agreement came as the two states sought to fix their borders after the Turkish War of Independence, and resulted in the obligatory removal of around 1.5 million Greeks from Anatolia and around 500,000 Muslims from Greece. The war was characterized by a lack of respect for civilian life and prisoners of war on both sides of the conflict. In 1822, Istanbul massacred 52,000 Greeks on the island of Chios during the Greek War of Independence. This is a fan based montage about the Greek Revolution Disclaimer: I do not own anything in this video. W. Alison Phillips noted that: A scene of horror followed which has only too many parallels during the course of this horrible war. On Easter Sunday, 10 April 1821, Gregory V was hanged in the central outside portal of the Ecumenical Patriarchate by the Ottomans. A massacre is a killing, typically of multiple victims, considered morally unacceptable, especially when perpetrated by a group of political actors against defenseless victims.
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